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Tuesday, January 9, 2018

[nafex] More US plant pathology in ProMed

Cherry virus post in ProMed

See below - links at end of post

2. PRO/PL> Cherry viruses - USA: spread (promed@promedmail.org)



CHERRY VIRUSES - USA: SPREAD
****************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases <http://www.isid.org>

Date: Thu 28 Dec 2017
Source: Washington Ag Network [edited]
<http://www.washingtonagnetwork.com/2017/12/28/cherry-viruses-moving-washington-oregon/>


Researchers at Oregon State University [OSU] have discovered that many of the viruses that have plagued the cherry growers in Washington [see ProMED-mail post http://promedmail.org/post/20140127.2233739] have moved to Oregon: viruses like cherry leaf roll virus, tomato ringspot, tobacco ringspot and little cherry disease.

OSU's Jay Pscheidt said it's important for growers to not ignore problems, look for symptoms and work with labs that can test for these diseases. "Our next step is to find out how prevalent they are."
Removal of viruses that you don't know are there is obviously quite difficult.

[Byline: Kevin Rounce]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Around 30 viruses have been found to affect sweet (_Prunus avium_) and/or sour (_P. cerasus_) cherry trees, singly or in coinfections.
Many of them also affect other _Prunus_ species.

Of the viruses mentioned above, _Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV), _Tomato ringspot virus_ (ToRSV) and _Tobacco ringspot virus_ (TRSV) all belong to genus _Nepovirus_. On cherry, CLRV and TRSV mainly cause leaf symptoms as indicated by their names, ToRSV has also been associated with stem pitting. Generally, members of the genus are transmitted by nematodes, but most can also be transmitted by mechanical means, with infected planting and grafting material and to varying degrees by seed and pollen.

Little cherry disease (LCD) is a serious problem for sweet and sour cherry producers in parts of northern Europe and North America. It can be caused by 2 closteroviruses, _Little cherry virus 1_ (LChV-1, not yet assigned to a genus) and LChV-2 (genus _Ampelovirus_), in single or mixed infections. Symptoms vary with host cultivars, but may include reduced size and quality of fruit, premature leaf reddening, stunting of seedlings and some loss of tree vigour. All commercial cherry cultivars are susceptible, and ornamental flowering cherries can be asymptomatic reservoirs of LChV-1. LChV-2 is transmitted by mealybug vectors which can be spread by wind and with packing material. An insect vector for LChV-1 is not known. Both viruses can be spread by both shoot and root grafting and with infected plant material.

Disease management for fruit tree viruses may include phytosanitation in orchards, use of certified clean planting stock and budwood, elimination of inoculum (removal of infected trees) and vector control if feasible.

Maps
USA:
<http://www.mapsofworld.com/usa/usa-state-and-capital-map.html>
Individual states via:
<http://www.mapsofworld.com/usa/states/>

Pictures
LCD symptoms:
<https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/sites/gateway/files/Cherry%201_0.jpg>,
<http://treefruit.wsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/little-cherry-disease-andrea-bixby-brosi.png>,
<http://www.bctfpg.ca/files/leaf(1).jpg> and <http://agriculture.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/image/0006/273867/LChV2_leaves_web.jpg>
LCD affected cherry seedlings:
<http://www.forestryimages.org/images/768x512/0656032.jpg>
LCD photo gallery:
<http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/subimages.cfm?sub=11205>
Cherry leafroll disease:
<http://plantdoctor.pbworks.com/f/Cherry%2520stunt%2520leaf%2520roll%2520brubaker.jpg>
and
<http://pbt.padil.gov.au/pbt/files/uall/CLRV_symptoms2.jpg>
(coinfection with _Prunus necrotic ringspot virus_, compared to
healthy)
CLRV, electron micrograph:
<http://www.dpvweb.net/dpvfigs/d306f07.jpg>
Some cherry virus symptoms via:
<https://www.ipmimages.org/browse/Areathumb.cfm?area=127>

Links
Additional news stories:
<http://www.thedalleschronicle.com/news/2018/jan/05/tree-virus-discovered-td/>
and
<http://koin.com/2017/12/12/researchers-hope-to-prevent-cherry-viruses-in-oregon/>
Information on little cherry disease and viruses:
<http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=16072>,
<https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/plant-biosecurity/little-cherry-disease-pest-data-sheet>,
<http://www.bctfpg.ca/pest_guide/info/128/> and <http://www.slideshare.net/treddout/little-cherry-virus-2>
Information on CLRV:
<http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=306> and <http://pbt.padil.gov.au/pbt/index.php?q=node/20&pbtID=151>
Information on ToRSV:
<http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=290>
Information on TRSV:
<http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=309>
Information on various cherry viruses:
<https://pnwhandbooks.org/plantdisease/host-disease/cherry-prunus-spp-virus-induced-cherry-decline>
and
<https://www.sag.gob.cl/content/detection-virus-and-virus-diseasbs-fruit-trees>
Current list of cherry viruses:
<https://openagrar.bmel-forschung.de/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/Document_derivate_00008980/Classification%20of%20pome%20and%20stone%20fruit%20viruses.pdf>
Virus taxonomy via:
<https://talk.ictvonline.org/taxonomy/>
- Mod.DHA

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/106>.]

[See Also:
2015
----
Tomato ringspot virus, pomegranate - Italy ex USA
http://promedmail.org/post/20151118.3799622
2014
----
Plum pox virus, sour cherry - Russia: new strain
http://promedmail.org/post/20140621.2555998
Little cherry disease - Australia (02): LChV-2, 1st rep (TS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20140304.2309952
Little cherry disease - Australia: (TS) susp
http://promedmail.org/post/20140205.2255550
Little cherry disease - USA: (WA)
http://promedmail.org/post/20140127.2233739
Plum pox virus - Japan, Canada
http://promedmail.org/post/20140410.2394198
2011
----
Prunus necrotic ringspot virus - Saudi Arabia: (JF) 1st rep
http://promedmail.org/post/20110530.1649
2010
----
Plum pox virus, stone fruit - Canada: (ON) update
http://promedmail.org/post/20100406.1101
2007
----
Plum pox virus, stone fruit - USA (NY): quarantine
http://promedmail.org/post/20070727.2417
Plum pox potyvirus, stone fruit - USA (MI): quarantine
http://promedmail.org/post/20070504.1449
2005
----
Cherry green mottle virus, sweet cherry - Poland
http://promedmail.org/post/20051209.3554
2004
----
Cherry virus A, little cherry virus-1 - Poland
http://promedmail.org/post/20040822.2337
2003
----
Tree fruits, viruses, viroids - Syria: survey
http://promedmail.org/post/20030817.2055
2002
----
Little cherry virus, sweet cherry - Canada
http://promedmail.org/post/20021201.5940
2001
----
Cherry virus A, sweet cherry - UK
http://promedmail.org/post/20010822.1982
and additional items on cherry viruses in the archives] .................................................sb/dha/msp/ml


------------------------------

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using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted or archived material.
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End of ProMED Digest, Vol 67, Issue 21
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Tuesday, January 2, 2018

[nafex] Sudden Apple Decline, Eastern US

Saw this today about sudden apple decline on my ID listserve.

Original article from:

https://www.growingmagazine.com/education/rapid-apple-decline-psu-remains-mystery/

Other links on topic at end of post.


PRO/PL> Undiagnosed sudden decline, apple - USA
(promed@promedmail.org)



Date: Fri, 29 Dec 2017 03:02:35 +0000
From: promed@promedmail.org
Subject: PRO/PL> Undiagnosed sudden decline, apple - USA
To: promed-post@promedmail.org, promed-plant-post@promedmail.org



UNDIAGNOSED SUDDEN DECLINE, APPLE - USA
***************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases <http://www.isid.org>

Date: Mon 25 Dec 2017
Source: Growing [edited]
<https://www.growingmagazine.com/education/rapid-apple-decline-psu-remains-mystery/>


In the Northeast [of the US], Canada and North Carolina, young dwarf trees in high-density orchards are dying [see ProMED-mail post http://promedmail.org/post/20100608.1911] with increased frequency.
The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Cornell University, University of North Carolina and others have teamed up to solve the mystery of Rapid (or Sudden) Apple Decline (RAD or SAD).

There seems to be some connection to M9 rootstock, although other rootstocks also can be impacted. Fuji, Gala and Golden Delicious cultivars appear most susceptible. This might indicate some cultivar-rootstock combination triggering RAD. Observations do not point to any specific pathogen, abiotic factors may play a role, [but] there is no obvious common denominator among the impacted trees.

Trees, even those full of fruit, quickly die from RAD. The graft union shows necrosis [which] continues up the bark. Severe bark shedding near the graft union [and] cankers are also seen. Within 2 to 3 weeks, leaves turn yellow and the tree dies. There are few signals that anything is wrong prior to the sudden emergence of symptoms. Trees collapse completely, despite the wood being solid and the roots healthy. In any given block, trees with RAD are scattered with no pattern, [and] some trees can remain healthy.

Because stress is believed to be a factor in RAD, growers are advised to eliminate as many stressors as possible. Alternative rootstocks to
M9 could afford protection. Other [factors] may be playing some role in the syndrome and viruses or [other] pathogens - known or as yet unidentified - may also be contributing.

[Byline: Tamara Scully]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[This undiagnosed disease or disorder in apple orchards was previously reported from Michigan and New York (ProMED-mail post http://promedmail.org/post/20100608.1911). It now appears to be much more widely distributed but unfortunately not much progress seems to have been made in the search for a cause.

Association with specific dwarfing rootstocks and apple varieties may imply graft transmissible agents such as viruses, viroids or phytoplasmas. Molecular methods are needed for their detection, but no information is provided in the report above whether a systematic molecular search for any pathogens has already been undertaken. As mentioned above, SAD may also represent a syndrome including a number of different factors, which would make the task of identifying a cause much more complex.

Generally, to identify a biotic or abiotic cause for a disease or disorder of unknown aetiology, a defined process must be followed:
description of specific symptoms in individual plants; patterns of their distribution in space and time; evidence for or against transmission of symptoms and spread of the condition; Koch's rules (i.e. to re-isolate an infectious pathogen after culture and transmission, or equivalent process for non-culturable pathogens) to test for causation by a biotic agent; molecular studies to identify a known or characterise a novel potential infectious agent. Especially in slow growing hosts, such as trees, this process may take many years and it would be complicated considerably if a previously unknown pathogen were to be involved.

Maps
USA:
<http://www.mapsofworld.com/usa/usa-state-and-capital-map.html>
Individual states via:
<http://www.mapsofworld.com/usa/states/>

Pictures
SAD symptoms:
<http://www.goodfruit.com/wp-content/uploads/rapidAppleDecline1010442-1-1-620x465.jpg>,
<https://www.agprofessional.com/sites/default/files/image_galleryzoom_1.jpg>,
<http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/hort/news/orchnews/2016/on-1216a6f3.jpg>,
<http://www.goodfruit.com/wp-content/uploads/rapidAppleDecline1010428-2-620x727.jpg>,
<http://www.mpnnow.com/storyimage/NU/20171211/NEWS/171219934/AR/0/AR-171219934.jpg>
and
<http://files.growingproduce.com/growingproduce/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/tree-decline-new-york.jpg>

Links
Additional news stories:
<http://www.freshplaza.com/article/186470/New-York-state-experts-probe-sudden-apple-decline>,
<http://www.mpnnow.com/news/20171211/experts-probe-sudden-apple-decline>,
<https://www.agprofessional.com/article/rapid-apple-decline-hits-trees-northeast>,
<http://www.goodfruit.com/whats-killing-these-trees/> and <http://www.lancasterfarming.com/farming/produce/mystery-issue-killing-apple-trees/article_fd8cbacf-57fc-5af8-9a4f-486faca643f6.html>
Information on SAD:
<https://extension.psu.edu/rapid-apple-decline-rad-or-sudden-apple-decline-sad>,
<http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/hort/news/orchnews/2016/on-1216a6.htm>,
<http://www.hort.cornell.edu/expo/proceedings/2017/TreeFruitPestMGMT.AppleTrunkDisorders.Rosenberger.2017.pdf>
and
<http://www.growingproduce.com/fruits/apples-pears/new-york-growers-input-needed-on-tree-decline/>
Information on apple rootstocks, including M9:
<http://www.gardenaction.co.uk/fruit_veg_diary/fruit_veg_mini_project_september_2a_apple.asp>.
- Mod.DHA]

[See Also:
Crown & root rot, apple - USA: (eastern)
http://promedmail.org/post/20170821.5263568
2016
----
Fireblight, apple - Canada: (QC)
http://promedmail.org/post/20160919.4500366
2014
----
Fireblight, apple - Canada: (NS)
http://promedmail.org/post/20140908.2756240
2013
----
Apple proliferation phytoplasma- N America: 1st report, Canada
http://promedmail.org/post/20130415.1646164
2012
----
Fungal diseases, apple - USA: (NY, MI)
http://promedmail.org/post/20120906.1282861
2010
----
Undiagnosed mould & scab, apple - Mexico (QE)
http://promedmail.org/post/20100822.2939
Undiagnosed disease, apple - USA: (MI, NY)
http://promedmail.org/post/20100608.1911
and additional items on apple diseases in the archives] .................................................sb/dha/ec/lm

------------------------------

*##########################################################*
************************************************************
ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted or archived material.
************************************************************
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<http://www.isid.org/donate/>
************************************************************
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Send all items for posting to: promed@promedmail.org (NOT to an individual moderator). If you do not give your full name name and affiliation, it may not be posted. You may unsub- scribe at <http://ww4.isid.org/promedmail/subscribe.php>.
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End of ProMED Digest, Vol 66, Issue 83
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Wednesday, December 27, 2017

Re: [nafex] [ARTICLE] Ex FBI man on the trail of lost apples

He seems like the best man for the job!

On 11/23/2017 7:02 AM, dwoodard@becon.org wrote:
> See
> <https://agro.biodiver.se/2017/11/ex-fbi-guy-on-the-trail-of-lost-apples/>
>
>
> Doug Woodard
> St. Catharines, Ontario
>
> __________________
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> nafex@lists.ibiblio.org
> Northamerican Allied Fruit Experimenters
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Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Re: [nafex] Dwarf Geraldi Mulberry

Greetings,

I had zero success on rooting Geraldi with hardwood or softwood cuttings. I would like
to get a bud stick or two of the Dwarf Issai and graft onto the Geraldi.

Lester H. Davis
Columbus, Ga

----- Original Message -----

From: "Ro Qu" <richardqhansen@gmail.com>
To: "mailing list at ibiblio - Northamerican Allied Fruit Experimenters" <nafex@lists.ibiblio.org>
Sent: Tuesday, June 2, 2015 11:47:30 AM
Subject: Re: [nafex] Dwarf Geraldi Mulberry

I tried to root hardwood cuttings of Geraldi and they rooted but never
leafed out and eventually died. I would like to know how this turns out for
you.

I also have the Dwarf Issai mulberry which is only a foot tall (on its own
roots) and is loaded with fruit. I may have a very limited amount
of budwood available if anyone is interested. It is supposed to be hardy to
zone 5 but I have never tried to verify this since it is so easy to grow in
a pot. It is supposedly a dwarf Morus alba and I got my original plant
from Logees.

Richard Hansen
Zone 4b

On Mon, Jun 1, 2015 at 10:05 PM, Lester Davis <lhdavis8@knology.net> wrote:

> Geraldi mulberry stays dwarf when grafted on other rootstock. Mine is not
> over 7 feet tall and diameter about the same and is over 15 years. It is
> dwarfed because of the short distance
> between the nodes. Since the nodes are so close and the fruit normal
> size it appears more heavy loaded than any other mulberry. I have taken
> softwood cuttings this spring and trying
> to root, have had no success with cuttings taken winter pruning.
>
> Lester H. Davis
>
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Friday, December 8, 2017

Re: [nafex] [ARTICLE] Ex FBI man on the trail of lost apples

That's really neat! I would love to be an apple hunter someday when I
retire, but for now I satisfy my fruit lust via this list, ha ha.

On Thu, Nov 23, 2017 at 7:02 AM, <dwoodard@becon.org> wrote:

> See
> <https://agro.biodiver.se/2017/11/ex-fbi-guy-on-the-trail-of-lost-apples/>
>
> Doug Woodard
> St. Catharines, Ontario
>
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> nafex@lists.ibiblio.org
> Northamerican Allied Fruit Experimenters
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>



--
Lori Rizzo, BSN MBA RN
*Healthcare Quality & Performance Improvement*
*Behavioral Dog Training & Counseling*
*Heirloom & Unusual Vegetable Propagation*
*Supporting Member New England Kayak Fishing (NEKF)*
*Kingston, MA*
*rizzolori1@gmail.com <rizzolori1@gmail.com>*
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Thursday, November 23, 2017

Saturday, September 9, 2017

Re: [nafex] Identify fruit?

how about a sloe plum?
RDO

-----Original Message-----
From: L.A. Rizzo
Sent: Sunday, August 27, 2017 8:51 PM
To: rob hamilton ; mailing list at ibiblio - Northamerican Allied Fruit
Experimenters
Subject: Re: [nafex] Identify fruit?

It's 8 feet tall - he says it came up by itself - has a plum seed, very
very sweet to eat, some type of plum. He didn't bring a branch today, but
may take it to the extension agent - thanks for the input!

On Sat, Aug 26, 2017 at 7:45 PM, rob hamilton via nafex <
nafex@lists.ibiblio.org> wrote:

> could it be a Beach Plum? --------------------------------------------
> Now Zone 8a!! Atlanta, GA
>
> Atlanta Fruits Club
> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Atlanta_Fruits/
> North American Fruit Explorers (NAFEX)
> www.NAFEX.org
> Southern Fruit Fellowship (SFF) http://southernfruitfellowship.
> wordpress.com/
> California Rare Fruit Growers
> www.crfg.org
>
> My New Blog!!
> http://atlantafruitman.wordpress.com/
>
> On Saturday, August 26, 2017 12:53 PM, Jerry Lehman <
> jwlehmantree@gmail.com> wrote:
>
>
> On 8/24/2017 10:37 PM, L.A. Rizzo wrote:
> > I have a friend who would like this identified - growing in Quincy, MA.
> > Says it looks like a cross between an apple and a plum.
> The serrated leaves I believe put it in the Prunus family and the bark
> looks very similar to cherry. It's too late in the season for cherry, I
> believe. My guess is plum and very possibly Prunus americana.
>
> Jerry
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>
>
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--
Lori Rizzo, BSN MBA RN
*Healthcare Quality & Performance Improvement*
*Behavioral Dog Training & Counseling*
*Heirloom & Unusual Vegetable Propagation*
*Supporting Member New England Kayak Fishing (NEKF)*
*Kingston, MA*
*rizzolori1@gmail.com <rizzolori1@gmail.com>*
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